Imagine that four prisoners have been buried up to their necks in desert sand as in the Picture above.
An each man can only see what is in front of him, and the wall completely block his view of the other side.
Their captors place hat on their head. They are told that there are two hats with white band and two with black. But none of them is allowed to see the colour of his own and the brim hides it from view.
The buried men are given 2minutes, in which time one of them must correctly call out the colour of his own hat-band, if the first one to speak get it right, inside the time limits, they will all be freed, if not they will be all left there to die, no communications is allowed, and an incorrect call means they all lose, inshort one of them must make a Life-and-Death decision for all of them.
After about one minute, one of the prisoner calls out the colour of his hat-band correctly, he doesn’t guess, and there’s no trick to the question, he works it out by reasoning.
So this is the question:
Which of the prisoner answer, and how does he know he was correct?
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